Post by astarte
Post by Rod Post by astarte
No, I didn't. Nor does history.
It does now. I have been reading the translations of tablets
found in the Iraqui desert. University of Houston has several
Like these for gilgamesh?
None of the above are a final authority. But nimrod references
predominately are apologetic sites.
Post by Rod
Surprisingly, the only references to him
Post by astarte
are found in apologetic sites. A red flag for sure.
Not any more. University of Houston to get current.
snip, & thanks for the help.
I wasn't much help, but here are some that I have been
Gilgamesh is Nimrod
Author: Dr. David P. Livingston, Associates for Biblical Research.
How does Gilgamesh compare with “Nimrod?” Ancient historian Josephus
says of Nimrod,
Now it was Nimrod who excited them to such an affront and contempt of
God. He was the grandson of Ham, the son of Noah-a bold man, and of
great strength of hand. He persuaded them not to ascribe it to God, as
if it were through his means they were happy, but to believe that it was
their own courage which procured that happiness. He also gradually
changed the government into tyranny-seeing no other way of turning men
from the fear of God, but to bring them into a constant dependence upon
his own power.
He also said he would be revenged on God, if he should have a mind to
drown the world again; for that he would build a tower too high for the
waters to be able to reach! and that he would avenge himself on God for
destroying their forefathers! (Ant. I: iv: 2)
What Josephus says here is precisely what is found in the Gilgamesh
epics. Gilgamesh set up tyranny, he opposed YHWH and did his utmost to
get people to forsake Him.
Two of the premiere commentators on the Bible in Hebrew have this to
say about Genesis 10:9,
Nimrod was mighty in hunting, and that in opposition to YHWH; not
‘before YHWH’ in the sense of according to the will and purpose of YHWH,
still less,… in a simply superlative sense… The name itself, ‘Nimrod’
from marad, ‘We will revolt,’ points to some violent resistance to God…
Nimrod as a mighty hunter founded a powerful kingdom; and the founding
of this kingdom is shown by the verb with consecutive to have been the
consequence or result of his strength in hunting, so that hunting was
intimately connected with the establishing of the kingdom. Hence, if the
expression ‘a mighty hunter’ relates primarily to hunting in the literal
sense, we must add to the literal meaning the figurative signification
of a ‘hunter of men’ (a trapper of men by stratagem and force); Nimrod
the hunter became a tyrant, a powerful hunter of men (Keil and Delitzsch
“in the face of YHWH” can only mean ‘in defiance of YHWH’ as
Josephus and the Targums understand it (op. cit.: 166).
And the proverb must have arisen when other daring and rebellious men
followed in Nimrod's footsteps and must have originated with those who
saw in such conduct an act of rebellion against the God of salvation, in
other words, with the possessors of the divine promise of grace (loc. cit.).
References and Bibliography
Brown, F., Driver, S.R., and Briggs, C.A. (abbreviated to BDB), A
Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament.Oxford (Clarendon Press,
Cassuto, U., A Commentary on the Book of Genesis, 2 vols.
(Jerusalem: Magnes, 1964).
Frankfort, H., Kingship and the Gods (Chicago: University Press, 1948).
Heidel, Alexander, The Gilgamesh Epic and Old Testament Parallels
(Chicago: University Press, 1963).
Jacobsen, T., The Sumerian Kinglist (Chicago: University Press, 1939).
Josephus, Jewish Antiquities. Books IIII (Cambridge MA: Harvard
University Press, Loeb Classics, 1998).
Kautzsch, E., editor, Genesius' Hebrew Grammar (Oxford: Clarendon,
Kramer, S. N., editor, History Begins at Sumer (Garden City NY:
Keil, C. F., and Delitzsch, P. Commentary on the Old Testament,
vol. 1 (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1975).
Pritchard, J., Ancient Near Eastern Texts and the Old Testament,
3rd edition (Princeton: University Press, 1969).
Roux, G., Ancient Iraq, 3rd edition (Harmondsworth, Middlesex, UK:
Thomas, D.W., Documents From Old Testament Times (New York: Thomas
Nelson and Sons, 1958).